Glossary beginning with R

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R

TERMDEFINITIONSOURCE/CREDIT
R.I.B. (Round Iron Bar)

An older type of legal survey monument usually marking a corner (not used since the 1970's).

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Radius

The radius of a circular curve is the distance from either the point of tangency or the point of curvature, measured along the perpendicular, to the curve center.

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Rafters

The wooden structural support beams for a roof, sometimes visible on the exterior for certain building types and styles.

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Ratio

The core principle of a particular judgment that is followed or referred to in future cases with similar facts. The lower courts are obliged to follow the *ratio* of judgments of higher courts.

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Real Estate

An ownership interest in real property. In common usage it has come to mean the land itself.

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Real Property

Land and generally whatever is erected upon it, growing on or affixed to the land.

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Real-time Kinematic

A method for implementing a survey using GPS.

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Records

Information however recorded or stored, whether in printed form, on film, by electronic means or otherwise, and includes documents, financial statements, minutes, accounts, correspondence, memoranda, plans, maps, drawings, photographs and films.

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Rectification

A set of techniques for removing data errors through calculation or adjustment

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Reference Bearing

Orientation of the survey plan is based on a specific surveyed line and a specific bearing. The reference bearing is taken off a previous survey, and the origin traces back to astronomic observations of the North Star (hence the term "astronomic") to orient survey to official North/East/South/West. Reference Bearing must match the Bearing Not.

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Reference Plan

A publicly deposited plan, comprised of Parts and assigned a unique number. Differentiated from other plans by an "R" and the number of the specific registry office in which the land is situate, e.g. 66R-1234.

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Registered

A document or plan with a unique sequential number placed in the Registry system whereby an action related to land occurs, e.g. transfer, expropriation.

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Registered Plan

A plan with an unique sequential number placed in the Registry system whereby an action related to land occurs upon registration. e.g. expropriation, M-plan.

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Registrar's Compiled Plan

A plan prepared and registered under subsection 83 (1) of the Registry Act.

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Registry Office

A physical building where documents relating to land are filed and stored (and other documents as well). Historically these were secure fireproof buildings ensuring the availability of records to verify land ownership, e.g. loss of deed papers by an owner. Ontario land registry offices are sequentially numbered from 1 to 66. For modern plans recorded in the registry office, the two numbers before the alphanumeric identify the originating office, e.g. 66R-12345 reference plan from Toronto; 43M-1234 subdivision plan in Peel.

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Regular Lot

A township lot whose boundaries according to the original plan conform within one degree to the bearings shown for the corresponding boundaries of the majority of the lots in the tier in which the lot occurs.

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Regulations

The regulations made under any Act.

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Reliction

The gradual and imperceptible recession of the water resulting in an uncovering of land once submerged; may result in the enlargement of land area.

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Remonumentation

Resetting a corner monument at the position of an original monument using Generally Accepted Surveying Principles.

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Remote Sensing

The process of obtaining information about land, water, or an object, without any physical contact between the instrument doing the sensing and the subject.

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Reserve Fund

A reserve fund established under section 93 of the Condominium Act.

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Reserve Strip

A 0.3 metre reserve (one foot reserve) is a strip of land 30 cm wide, running along the street frontage or perimeter of a property or perpendicularly across a road right-of-way that is deeded permanently or temporarily to a municipality as a condition of a subdivision agreement. This reserve as the effect of technically denying access to a property, or adjacent lands because the law requires that all land must have frontage on a public street to qualify for a building permit. The reserve is used as a means to control development until such time as various conditions are met or to prohibit development on lands that are not yet scheduled for development. The lifting of the reserves can result in the dedication of land as public highways or the conveyance of land back to the original or an adjacent owner.

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Reservoir

A pond, lake, tank or basin (natural or human made) where water is collected and used for storage. Large bodies of groundwater are called a groundwater reservoir or aquifer; water behind a dam is also called a reservoir of water.

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Residential Survey

Known as a "Surveyor's Real Property Report" or "Building Location Survey" on older surveys; some plans may show unfinished buildings, e.g. dwelling under construction or poured concrete foundation.

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Residual Error

Any remaining error after all adjustments are made.

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Restrictive Covenant

An agreement creating an obligation contained in a deed, forbidding the commission of some act.

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Resurvey

The survey of a previously surveyed boundary made for the purposes of correcting errors, re-establishing lost monuments, or placing additional monuments on the boundary.

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Retracement Survey

A survey of a previously surveyed boundary in order to determine the directions and distances between the monuments marking it.

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Returns

Official reports. In cadastral survey parlance, the "returns" are the field notes, report and approved survey.

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Right of Entry

1) A legal right to enter real property and not be trespassing.
2) Surveyors have a statutory right in Ontario to enter the land of any person for any purpose of the survey.

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Right-of-way

The legal right to cross the lands of another.

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Riparian Boundaries

Water boundaries, or boundaries formed by a river, lake or the sea. The general rule is that riparian boundaries shift with changes due to accretion or erosion but retain their original location if brought about by avulsion or by artificial causes.

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Riparian Lands

In strict interpretation, lands bordering on a river.

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Riparian Owner

One who owns land having a boundary defined by a water course.

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River

A natural stream of water of considerable volume.

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River Basin

A term used to designate the area drained by a river and its tributaries.

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Road

A passage through the country for the use of the people. Roads are public or private. Public roads are laid out by public authority, or dedicated by individuals to public use.

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Road Allowance

Land set aside in the original township surveys for public roads or on registered plans of subdivision often (but not always) intended to be 66 feet wide.

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Rock Bar

An iron or steel bar twenty-five millimetres square and fifteen centimetres long.

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Rock Post

A ferrous metal shaft at least fifteen millimetres round or square and at least seven centimetres long with a bronze or aluminum identification cap.

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Rod

One rod equals 16.5 feet or 25 links. Also termed "perch" or "pole" in older surveys.

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Roman Road

Highly engineered roads used throughout the roman empire consisting of a metalled surface on a solid foundation of earth or stone. Where possible, roads were built in the straightest line possible. Sir George Yonge after whom Yonge street was named was an expert on Roman roads.

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Rood

Unit of area usually equal to 1/4 acre.

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Roof

Roofs can be steep, flat or gently sloped and take many forms, gable, gambrel, hipped, stepped gable, shed, pent or Mansard. The roof type is an important key to identifying the style of a building.

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Root Zone

The depth of soil penetrated by crop roots.

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Round Arch

A semicircular arch over a window or door.

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Route Survey

A survey in respect of the fee simple of land that defines, locates or describes limits of the land that is used or is proposed to be used for the route of a highway, railway, pipeline, or public utility.

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Rule

A rule of a condominium corporation.

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Rule of Law

A synonym for law and order; the principle that requires that the powers of the state and its servants shall be derived from and limited either by legislation enacted by Parliament or a legislature, or judicial decisions taken by independent courts. Law by definition is a body of rules of general application. The rule of law is to be contrasted with "rule of man", or "the rule of force" which implies arbitrary, or autocratic governance by an individual or individuals not responsible to the people of the state.

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